Establishing the hoarding cages

1) Adult honey bees should be collected per Williams et al., 2013. They should be from a single colony in order to provide a similar status regarding origin and health.

2) Upon collection, the adult bees should be kept in hoarding cages that have a syrup feeder. For convenience, plastic containers are recommended as they can be discarded after use in order to avoid contaminations. Glass, wooden or iron boxes that have been used before are not recommended for reuse unless the process of cleaning and sterilization is validated under Good Laboratory Practices. The boxes can be created per Williams et al., 2013.

3) The cages should be individually identified and placed in incubators or in a dedicated controlled room.

4) The cages should be stored at 25 ± 2°C and >50% rH.

5) Each cage should contain at least 10 bees (EPPO, 2010a; OECD, 1998a). The CEB (2011) recommends 20 bees and up to 50 bees in some specific chronic tests.