Collection of bees

Adult worker bees used for this protocol should be collected per Williams et al., 2013. Other special considerations:

1) Adult worker bees of the same race.

2) The bees should be collected in the morning of use or in the evening before the test and kept under test conditions to the next day.

3) Bees collected from frames without brood are suitable.

4) Collection in early spring or late autumn should be avoided, as the bees have an altered physiology during this time.

5) If tests are to be conducted in early spring or late autumn, the bees can be emerged in an incubator and reared for one week with “bee bread” (pollen collected from the comb) and sucrose solution.

6) The bees should not have a treatment history or originate from colonies that have been treated with chemical substances such as antibiotics, anti-Varroa agents, etc. Bees can be used from colonies that have been treated with these substance longer than 4 weeks before bee collection.