Test cages

1) Easy to clean and well-ventilated cages should be used. For recommendations on cage types and maintaining bees in laboratory cages, see Williams et al., 2013.

2) The cages should be lined with filter paper to avoid contamination of the bees from vomit and faeces. Groups of ten bees per cage are preferred.

3) The size of test cages should be appropriate to the number of bees (Williams et al., 2013).