Administration of doses

1) Anaesthetized bees (Human et al., 2013) are individually treated by topical application.

2) The bees are randomly assigned to the different test doses and controls.

3) A volume of 1µl of solution containing the test substance at the suitable concentration should be applied with a validated micro applicator to the dorsal side of the thorax of each bee.

4) Other volumes may be used, if justified.

5) After application, the bees are allocated to test cages and supplied with sucrose solutions (50% w/v).