22.214.171.124.2.8. Exposure to test substance
1) Forager bees, collected per Williams et al. (2013) are exposed to the dust by walking for 3 h on treated apple leaves or other substrate, placed on the bottom of a standard hoarding cage (e.g. 13 x 6 x 11 cm or one from Williams et al., 2013).
2) The leaves are removed from the cage after 3 h.