4.2.9. Extension to other topics in semi-field tests

Foliar application on flowering crops is the main classic topic addressed using semi-field tests. However, as previously mentioned, it is possible to perform semi-field tests with other special aims:

- forager behaviour on treated sunflowers: =observe specific parameters associated with individual forager bees (mobile/immobile, cleaning signs, clinic intoxication signs, etc., see Scheiner et al., 2013)

- brood parameters associated with foliar applications and specific assessment along a 21-day brood cycle (see sections and 5.2.3.). The OECD (2007) guidance document highlights the problems caused to brood development: assessment of the brood, including an estimate of adults, the area containing cells, eggs, larvae and capped cells (termination of the brood development and eventual compensation).

- residue studies in controlled conditions in pollen, nectar, dead bees, as well as in honey wax, soil and plant (flowers or the whole plant).