Application of treatment

 EPPO guideline 170 (EPPO, 2010a) suggests to make treatments using the formulated product applied on the blooming crop (e.g. rape, mustard, Phacelia or another attractive crop to bees). The product should normally be applied at the highest dose recommended for practical field use. EPPO guideline 170 suggests treating a crop area of about 1 ha. This field range may be sufficient if the crop is very attractive to bees, with high nectar and pollen production, and a high number of flowers per area unit. However, this treated test area is much smaller than the mean foraging area (700 ha) and the level of exposure could be considerably underestimated. An area of at least 2 ha should be used in field tests and it should be isolated from other flowering crops in the bee foraging area. Otherwise, the plot size will be increased proportionally so as to maximise the exposure of foraging bees.