Simultaneous trials

In case the treatment and the control trials were carried out simultaneously, in two different fields, the study could be considered valid if it meets the following conditions:

- before application, the mortality and the foraging activity among the hives of the two treatments are similar and standard (mortality comparable to that detected in the same period in hives located in the same area in good health conditions and without environmental stress);

- in the untreated field, the mortality and the sanitary status of the colonies are comparable before and after application;

- weather conditions during the test allowed normal foraging behaviour.