Reasons for collection of forager bees

- Residues at worst case level (no dilution, nectar present in the crop)

- In combination with sampling plants/flowers and matrices from the bee hive (honey, pollen, bee bread), the route of transfer of residues from a pesticide in the bee hive can be demonstrated

- Determination of realistic residue values for the risk assessment and further evaluations/studies (e.g. bee brood study in lab)

- Assessment of exposure in the field via pollen source determination

- Assessment of exposure to contaminated water sources, e.g. guttation (Reetz et al., 2011).