Collection of forager bees in tunnel tents or in the field

On each sampling day, one sample of approximately 300-600 forager bees will be taken per hive. At each sampling, the hive entrances will be sealed before the sampling and the forager bees will be subsequently collected as they return to the hive e.g. by suction with a vacuum, by brushing them into a box filled with dry ice, or by using a pair of tweezers. After each sampling interval, the hive will be re-opened allowing honey bees to return to and leave the hive.

Directly after sampling, each sample will be divided into two sub-samples (A and B). Each sub-sample should approximately 150 bees, one for preparation (A) and one as a retained sample (B). To avoid squeezing during storage and shipment, the bees will be transferred into containers. If <300 bees are collected per hive and sampling day, then sub-sample A will be composed of up to 150 bees with any remainder being allotted to sub-sample B. Details of the approximate numbers of bees collected for each sub-sample will be recorded in the raw data. Each sub-sample will be labelled uniquely.

All samples will be chilled during transport to the freezer and subsequently will be stored deep frozen at £-18 °C. Storage conditions will be recorded by use of a data logger or a min/max thermometer and will be documented in the raw data. Preparation of the pollen loads