Systemic products have the capacity to enter into the plants independently of their application pattern. Commercial products containing these AIs exist for treatments of seeds, soils, for applications as spray or directly to the roots or bulbs. Other application patterns may render systemic any AI, as is the case of stem injections. Pesticide formulations may contain other AIs or co-formulants that increase the systemicity of the AI under study (Dieckmann et al., 2010).
This section focuses on the proposal of a protocol evaluating the impact on honey bees exposed to the pollen and nectar coming from a crop that has received a treatment different from spraying with systemic products in field conditions. Exposure to guttation water or honeydew would require specific modifications of the methodology. Therefore, it should be dealt with separately.
Different methodologies for different application patterns: a different section should deal with the study of the impact of pesticides with systemic properties applied on spray.