Environment of the trial

The aim of the information collected from the environment of the colonies under study is identifying potential interferences of the exposure of bees to the AI or potential synergies in their action on bee colonies.

It is well known that bees cover wide surfaces when foraging, mean distances being around 1.5-3 km, extreme distances being around 10 km (Vischer and Seeley, 1982; Winston, 1987; Seeley, 1995; Steffan-Dewenter and Kuhn, 2003), average surface ranging from 7 to over 100 km2. International standards, however, normally recommend a treated area of 2,500 m2 or 1 ha.

With the help of satellite imaging or similar, the environment of 3 km around the placement of the colonies could be audited and noted. All software should be up-to-date. Whenever possible, any chemical treatments happening in this area should be registered and considered for the study.