Distance among trial plots

The distance among treatment plots and control ones should be enough to avoid the exposure of the latter to the AI. Therefore, a distance of at least 6 km is desirable. Otherwise, environmental conditions should remain comparable for all plots.

Should the minimum distance of 3 km not be achieved, residue analyses of the contents of the honey stomach of foragers or pollen clusters returning to the hive would provide information about the existence of cross foraging (i.e. bees foraging on the plots not designated for them). Palynological studies can as well help in this task. For method on recovering the honey stomach, see section or Carreck et al., 2013. Potentially, the same procedure could be developed for the study of the exposure of bee colonies to pesticides in water sources around the apiary.