Colony placement and equipment

Colonies will be placed all together at an environment free of pesticides where they will be monitored at least 7 days before flowering. If necessary, colonies can be fed with syrup to avoid starvation. The colony should not be exposed to contaminants in syrup. Residue analyses or tracking the syrup origin may help providing this information.

When the crop starts blooming (5 to 15% flowers of the crop have bloomed), colonies will be placed on the edge of the plots. Observations of the colonies will start 7 days before the expected time of flowering.

Pollen traps can be installed in 3 or 4 colonies per treatment group. Each colony should have dead bee traps. Devices like colony scales, bee counters or bee-tracking systems (e.g. Floriade, etc.) may provide extra information on the evolution of the colony throughout the trial (see Human et al., for information on using pollen traps, dead bee traps, and for weighing colonies).