Mortality trend

Dead bees can be counted using bee traps placed in front of the hive (Human et al., 2013). If a bee counter is used instead (an electronic device that counts bees exiting and entering the hive), the number of bees leaving the colony and not returning should be determined. These observations should be compared at a certain time of the day with a specific duration (e.g. every morning from 7 to 8 am).

These observations should be done on a daily basis from one week before the colonies are placed in the field until the end of blossom of the treated/control crop. Afterwards, the observations can be done on a weekly basis up to the 42 days.