Brood surface and quality

The different observations developed on the brood surface should allow identifying eventual deficiencies in the egg-laying capacity of the queen or the brood success. Any alteration (e.g. mosaic brood, dead larvae/nymphs, increase of pathologies affecting brood, etc.) should be noted, both in quantity and quality. Protocols for brood evolution and monitoring are described in Delaplane et al., 2013b. The assessment of the duration of a brood cycle would be indeed, very interesting from the point of view of the interactions between the pesticide and pathologies.

Dead larvae in the bee trap should as well be noted.