5.1. Introduction

Honey bee brood may be exposed to pesticides through nectar and pollen collected by foragers. Effects on brood may vary according to the nature of the compound and its concentration in pollen and nectar (Aupinel et al., 2007a, 2007b). Lethal or sublethal effects can be expected throughout the colony life, according to the number of larvae affected, the mode of action and its consequences on bees. Considering that colony survival depends on the adult population directly linked to brood health, it is evident that the effects of pesticides on brood have to be seriously considered.