7.2.5. Notes

- To analyse honey bees at a second post-infection time, the number of cages for each modality must be multiplied by two.

- To avoid any bias due to the weather or season on bee physiology, mortality, physiological and chemical investigations should be performed at the same time.

- Honey bees must be handled with a soft insect holding forceps to avoid physiological damages.

- The experimental design may be modified to change the day of infection, the starting day and the duration of exposure to pesticide, and the sequence of exposure to stressors.

- It is proposed to expose the bees to the pesticide 10 h per day in order to avoid overexposure not compatible with environmental exposures (Suchail et al., 2001). However, bees can be exposed continuously to the pesticide.

- The levels of exposure to pesticides are relatively easy to determine on the basis of pesticide residues in pollen, nectar and honey. However, for the pathogens, it is impossible to determine an infectious level that could be representative of an environmental exposure or a pathological situation. Thus, the inoculum has to be determined by the experimenter on the basis of the objectives intended.