Authors

Standard methods for American foulbrood research.

Dirk C de Graaf1 *, Adriana M Alippi2, Karina Antúnez3, Katherine A Aronstein4, Giles Budge5, Dieter De Koker1 §, Lina De Smet1, Douglas W Dingman6, Jay D Evans7, Leonard J Foster8, Anne Fünfhaus9, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez9, Aleš Gregorc10, Hannelie Human11, K Daniel Murray12, Bach Kim Nguyen13, Lena Poppinga9, Marla Spivak14, Dennis VanEngelsdorp15, Selwyn Wilkins5 and Elke Genersch9.

 1Ghent University, Laboratory of Zoophysiology, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
2Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Centro de Investigaciones de Fitopatología, calles 60 y 118, c.c. 31, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
3Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Department of Microbiology, Avda. Italia 3318, 11600 Montevideo, Uruguay.
4USDA-ARS, Honey Bee Research Unit, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Center, 2413 E. Hwy 83, 78596 Weslaco TX, USA.
5National Bee Unit, Food and Environment Research Agency, Sand Hutton, YO41 1LZ York, UK.
6The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, New Haven CT 06504, USA.
7USDA-ARS, Bee Research Lab, BARC-E Bldg 476, Beltsville MD 20705, USA.
8University of British Columbia, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 2125 East Mall, V6T 1Z4 Vancouver BC, Canada.
9Institute for Bee Research, Friedrich-Engels-Str. 32, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany.
10Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
11University of Pretoria, Department of Zoology and Entomology, Pretoria, South Africa.
12South Texas College, Biology Department, 400 N. Border, 78596 Weslaco TX, USA.
13Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Entomologie fonctionnelle & évolutive, Passage des Déportés 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
14University of Minnesota, Department of Entomology, 219 Hodson Hall, 1980 Folwell Ave., 55108 St. Paul MN, USA.
15University of Maryland, Department of Entomology, 3136 Plant Sciences, College Park, MD 20742, USA

§ in memoriam: ° July 24, 1987 - † May 30, 2012

 Received 10 April 2012, accepted subject to revision 18 June 2012, accepted for publication 5 November 2012.

 *Corresponding author: Email: Dirk.deGraaf@UGent.be