1.3. Secondary bacteria
Several other bacteria such as: Enterococcus faecalis; Achromobacter euridice; Paenibacillus alvei and Brevibacillus laterosporus may be associated with EFB (Forsgren, 2010). Although the presence of P. alvei, like spores of E. faecalis has been considered presumptive evidence of European foulbrood, the role of such secondary bacterial invaders in disease development has been poorly investigated. A. euridice is frequently isolated in mixed culture with M. plutonius and EFB symptoms in larvae may be more easily induced with inoculate containing M. plutonius in combination with A. euridice or P. alvei (Bailey, 1957). However, a more recent study from Switzerland showed that the simultaneous or 3 days delayed inoculation of P. alvei had no influence on the virulence of M. plutonius in individual larvae (Charrière et al., 2011; see section 9.2). This paper will focus solely on techniques for diagnosis and research of the causative agent of EFB, M. plutonius.