2. Bio-safety recommendations
It is important to appreciate that there is no internationally accepted biohazard classification for the handling of M. plutonius for diagnostic or research purposes. Restrictions on the handling of the bacterium and diseased material vary significantly between countries, and any laboratory should check national policies for guidance before handling material. In those countries where M. plutonius is not notifiable, there is still a strong need for precautionary measures to reduce the risk of infection, and further guidance on bio-safety recommendations can be found in the American foulbrood paper of the BEEBOOK (de Graaf et al., 2013).