4.3. Honey and pollen

Brood nest honey, bulk honey and pollen have to some extent been used to confirm the presence of bacteria using culture methods (see section 5) and PCR (see section 8) in both diseased and healthy looking colonies (Hornitzky and Smith, 1998, McKee et al., 2003). For further sampling instructions see the American foulbrood paper of the BEEBOOK (de Graaf et al., 2013).