8. PCR-based methods

Detection of infectious microorganisms has been revolutionized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and has increasingly been described as the “gold standard” for detecting some microbes. Theoretically, a single target DNA molecule is sufficient for detection, making PCR one of the most sensitive biological techniques ever described. For a more generic overview on PCR-based methods and other molecular biology methodologies used in A. mellifera research see the molecular methods paper of the BEEBOOK (Evans et al., 2013).