Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health.

Authors: Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Eugene Lengerich, Angela Spleen, Benjamin Dainat, James Cresswell, Kathy Baylis, Bach Kim Nguyen, Victoria Soroker, Robyn Underwood, Hannelie Human, Yves Le Conte and Claude Saegerman.

Table of contents

Authors
Summary
1. Basic epidemiological terms and calculations
   1.1. Disease

      1.1.1. Case definition
      1.1.2 Test sensitivity and specificity
      1.1.3. Positive and negative predictive values
   1.2. Population
   1.3. Measures of disease in a population

      1.3.1. Point prevalence
         1.3.1.1. True versus apparent prevalence.
      1.3.2 Incidence rate
         1.3.2.1 Calculating confidence intervals for incidence rates
      1.3.3. Special cases of incidence
         1.3.3.1 Total colony loss (TL) (the cumulative incidence of mortality)
            1.3.3.1.1 95 % CI for total loss
            1.3.3.2. Average loss (AL)
               1.3.3.2.1 95 % CI for average loss
2. Study design
   2.1. Observational study designs

      2.1.1. Cross-sectional studies
         2.1.1.1. Detection of rare events
         2.1.1.2. Data analysis and interpretation: making associations between exposure and disease in cross-sectional studies
         2.1.1.3. Significance of odds ratio measures
         2.1.1.4. Comparing prevalence / incidence rates
         2.1.1.5. Multiple regression models
         2.1.1.6. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis
      2.1.2. Cohort studies
         2.1.2.1. Data analysis and interpretation: making associations between exposure and disease in cohort studies
         2.1.2.2. Relative risk
         2.1.2.3. The confidence intervals for relative risk
         2.1.2.4. Significance of relative risk measures
      2.1.3. Case-control studies
         2.1.3.1. Data analysis and interpretation
   2.2 Experimental study designs
3. Economic considerations
4. Inferring causal relationships using Hill’s Criteria
5. Conclusions

6. Acknowledgements

7. References