# 1.3.3.2. Average loss (AL)

Average loss is the mean % of the total colony loss experienced by respondents in a defined group over a defined period of time. This metric is most appropriately used to compare groups partitioned by different risk factor exposures (see study design in Section 2.1.1.3). Usually average loss calculations are heavily influenced by smaller beekeeper operations as they often compose a larger portion of the response population. Average Loss is calculated by dividing the summed total colony loss of respondents (TLi) within a specified group by the number of respondents in that group (N) and then multiplying the quotient by 100%.

## 1.3.3.2.1 95 % CI for average loss