Figure 1

The virtuous circle of epidemiology: Step 1. describe healthcharacteristics of the population in space and time (descriptiveepidemiology); Step 2. analyse data and mechanisms of developmentof the disease to understand behaviour (analytical epidemiology);Step 3. produce, select and apply control or preventive measures(operational epidemiology); Step 4. give necessary information thatpermits the follow up of measures (evaluative epidemiology); Inaddition, changing epidemiological methods should be supported bytheoretical epidemiology (modelling).
Figure 1
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