1.10.1. Breeding for resistance

Gilliam et al., (1983) and Taber (1986) demonstrated that it is possible to select and breed honey bees for resistance to chalkbrood disease. Spivak and Reuter (2001) demonstrated that colonies selected for rapid removal of freeze-killed brood showed resistance to chalkbrood in field experiments. Palacio et al., (2000) observed that hygienic colonies had a lower frequency of brood diseases including chalkbrood. Commercial queen breeders in the US and Denmark have found that if they have “zero-tolerance” for chalkbrood; i.e. they never raise queens from a colony that has had clinical symptoms of chalkbrood and they simultaneously select for rapid hygienic behaviour then they get rather chalkbrood resistant lines (Spivak and Jensen, unpublished).