1.3.2. Molecular methods qPCR

In recent years, real-time PCR (RT-PCR) has been used to identify and quantify viral, bacterial and microsporidial pathogens in the honey bee (see the BEEBOOK papers on nosema (Fries et al., 2013), European foulbrood (Forsgren et al., 2013), viruses (de Miranda et al., 2013) and molecular methods (Evans et al., 2013)). There are, however, no methods yet available to quantify A. apis spores or the A. apis hyphal biomass.