1.4.5. Quality test of inoculums
Chalkbrood spores can contaminate all surfaces of the bee hive and accumulate in hive products. They are very resistant to the environment and can remain viable and infective for more than 15 years (Toumanoff, 1951). However, spore viability will decline over time and this will vary from isolate to isolate and from batch to batch. Thus it is important to check spore viability prior to an experiment.