1.4.6. Availability and recommended reference isolates

Microbial isolates including fungi are deposited and stored in several culture collections around the world. They are available for both commercial and scientific use. Isolates can be ordered from the culture collection for a fee that is usually lower for non-profit organizations. We would recommend that researchers deposit isolates that have been used in publications in one of these culture collections, so that they can be retrieved for future research.

Different strains of A. apis have shown variable virulence towards honey bees (Vojvodic et al., 2011a) and may also vary in other biological traits. Thus to be able to compare different studies we recommend to always use AFSEF 7405 and ARSEF 7406 as reference isolates. These two isolates have been involved in the A. apis genome sequencing project (Qin et al., 2006); they represent each of the two mating types and both can readily be retrieved from either the USDA-ARSEF or the ATCC culture collections.

 Below is the list of the three most important culture collections we recommend for retrieving A. apis isolates: