1.5. Infection bioassays
A bioassay is a measurement of the effect of a substance on living organisms. Bioassays with A. apis can be conducted using in vitro reared larvae or directly in colonies. An in vitro bioassay has very important advantages over the whole colony bioassay; mainly, it excludes the effects of social immunity and allows for replicable experiments in controlled environment. However, to address questions related to hygienic behaviour, bioassays must be conducted directly within honey bee colonies.