1.9. Inhibitory assays against chalkbrood

For both fundamental and applied research it can be important to test the inhibitory effects of certain chemicals, plant extracts, propolis, probiotic bacteria or hemolymph against chalkbrood. These substances can be tested for their direct effect on spore germination and on hyphal growth, or they can be used to test their effect on the ability of the fungus to infect individual bees in vitro or in a colony context.