2.1.3.2. Behaviour of infected bees

There is a need to study if the impact on behaviour and physiology described from infections with N. apis also occurs during infections with N. ceranae. In particular, we need to find out:

  • Do honey bees infected by N. ceranae start their foraging activities at a younger age compared to uninfected bees, as is the case for N. apis infections (Hassanein, 1953)?
  • Do infections with N. ceranae cause a faster physiological aging of the bees, as is the case for N. apis infections (Wang and Muller, 1970)?
  • Do bees infected by N. ceranae feed the queen less frequently compared to uninfected bees, as is the case for N. apis infections (Wang and Muller, 1970)?
  • Are queen bees infected by N. ceranae superseded, as is the case for N. apis infections (Farrar, 1947)?