Source of bees

General details on selecting bees and colonies for experiments can be found in the BEEBOOK papers by Williams et al. (2013) and Human et al. (2013).  Details specific to Nosema investigations are discussed here. See the BEEBOOK paper on maintaining bees in cages (Williams et al., 2013) for information on how to obtain honey bees for experiments. 

For every experiment state:

  1. The subspecies of European honey bee used because of there may be genetic variation for disease resistance (Evans and Spivak, 2010)
  2. The time of year the experiment was performed because bee physiology can differ seasonally, in particular between summer and winter (Fluri et al., 1977), but also when brood rearing declines (Amdam et al., 2009).

Further considerations:

  1. Cage replicates should be performed during the same season to allow for easier comparison of data.
  2. Bees from multiple colonies should be used to ensure that the particular question being asked is relevant to honey bees in general (see Human et al. (2013) and Williams et al. (2013)).
  3. Use a sufficient number of replicate cages per treatment (see Human et al. (2013) and Williams et al. (2013)).

Bees from all colonies should be homogenized among cages to eliminate effect of ‘colony’, thereby leaving only ‘cage’ as a random factor. Age of bees