22.214.171.124.2. Age of bees
The age when honey bees are inoculated with Nosema spores may also influence parasite development and virulence due to changes in honey bee immune response (Amdam et al., 2005) and morphology (Rutrecht et al., 2007) as bees grow older. However, no such influence has been studied for Nosema spp. to our knowledge, and handling of very young bees for spore inoculation may damage the bees and reduce longevity. It is generally advisable to initiate inoculations when the bees are a few days old (2-5 days).