Standard methods for nosema research.

Ingemar Fries1*, Marie-Pierre Chauzat2, Yan-Ping Chen3, Vincent Doublet4, Elke Genersch6, Sebastian Gisder6, Mariano Higes7, Dino P McMahon5, Raquel Martín-Hernández7, Myrsini Natsopoulou4, Robert J Paxton4,5, Gina Tanner8, Thomas C Webster9, Geoffrey R Williams8.

1Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
2Anses, Unit of honey bee pathology, 105 route des Chappes, BP 111, F06 902 Sophia Antipolis cedex, France.
3Bee Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD, USA.
4Institute for Biology, University of Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale), Germany.
5School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK.
6Department for Molecular Microbiology and Bee Diseases, Institute for Bee Research Hohen Neuendorf, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany.
7Centro Apícola de Castilla-La Mancha, Laboratorio de Patología, San Martín s/n, 19180 Marchamalo, Spain.
8Swiss Bee Research Centre, Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP-HARAS, Bern, Switzerland.
9Land Grant Program, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY 40601, USA.

Received 10 April 2012, accepted subject to revision 14 June 2012, accepted for publication 29 October 2012.

*Corresponding author: Email: