2.2.3. Pupae

Pupation takes place in the soil surrounding the colony in individual chambers at shallow depth (seldom deeper than 20 cm, de Guzman et al., 2009). Pupae can be carefully sieved out of the soil of a cavity (sieve: 20 x 20 cm; mesh width: 1 mm) and then be collected with tweezers or an aspirator (Pettis and Shimanuki, 2000).