2.4.4. Storage and shipment of SHB samples

Storage and shipping conditions obviously depend on the planned subsequent analyses (e.g. for viruses see the BEEBOOK paper by de Miranda et al., 2013). For morphometric analysis, the samples should be immediately preserved in 70-95% EtOH. This ensures that the specimens are suitable for this kind of analyses for at least a few months, and often considerably longer. Alternatively, for later usage in DNA analysis, the samples should be stored in a freezer at ≤ -20°C to slow down the degeneration of DNA in tissues. DNA from specimens frozen at -20°C remains viable for several years, but to remain viable for longer, samples should be stored at -70°C (for details please refer to section 9.3. in ‘Storing dead adults’ in the BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods by Human et al., 2013). If SHB samples are shipped for scientific purposes, it is important to note that no living material should be sent to avoid the further distribution of this honey bee pest. Adult beetles or larvae should be first killed by over-night freezing or by soaking the specimen in 70-95% EtOH, and sent in a sealed container.