3.1.3. Sex determination

It is often required to determine the sex of individual SHBs for experimental or monitoring purposes. SHB seem to have a female-biased adult sex ratio both in the field and in laboratory rearing approaches (field: USA: Ellis et al., 2002a, Africa: Schmolke, 1974; Spiewok and Neumann, 2012; Australia: Spiewok and Neumann 2012; laboratory: Neumann et al., 2001a; Ellis et al., 2002b; Muerrle and Neumann, 2004).