3.1.3.2. Sex determination of pupae

The sex of pupal SHBs can be determined visually without the need to manipulate the individual (Fig. 10).

  1. Observe the ventral side of the distal section of the abdomen.
  2. Look for two bulbous projections on this location.

If present (Fig. 10a), it is a female pupa. These projections are absent in male pupae (Fig. 10b).

Fig. 10. Sexing pupal small hive beetles. A. and C. show the tip of the ventral side of the abdomen of a female small hive beetle. The two bulbous protrusions are circled. B. and D. show the tip of the ventral abdomen of a male small hive beetle. The bulbous protrusions are absent from the circled area. A. and B. are shown with enhanced contrast to highlight the genital area. Sketches: Kay Weigel (University of Florida; photos Lyle Buss.

12106VD revised fig10