Appendix - Useful resources for survey design

Several references are cited in the main paper for survey methodology. There are many useful books and sources of information for different aspects of survey methodology. Some of these are listed below as an additional resource, arranged by subject area.

1) A further general introduction to survey design:

GROVES, R M; FOWLER, F J; COUPER, M P; LEPKOWSKI, J M; SINGER, E; TOURANGEAU, R (2009) Survey methodology (Second edition). John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

- This book offers an excellent introduction to the principles of survey methodology.

2) On design of survey questions and questionnaires:

BRADBURN, N M; SUDMAN, S; WANSINK, B (2004) Asking questions: the definitive guide to questionnaire design - for market research, political polls, and social and health questionnaires (Revised Ed.).  John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Jossey-Bass, USA. 

- This will help the reader in the process of designing a questionnaire.

FOWLER, F J (1995) Improving survey questions: design and evaluation. SAGE Publications, Inc.; Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. 

- An excellent resource for advice on how to word and format survey questions to elicit useful information.

TOURANGEAU, R;  RIPS, L J; RASINSKI,  K (2000) The psychology of survey response. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK.

- The authors propose a theory of how respondents answer survey questions and discuss how it applies to various types of survey questions. This material will help a researcher to produce relatively well formed survey questions. 

PRESSER, S; ROTHGEB, J M; COUPER, M P; LESSLER, J T; MARTIN, E;  MARTIN, J; SI NGER, E (2004) Methods for testing and evaluating survey questionnaires John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

- A variety of techniques for determining the quality of a draft questionnaire are discussed in this work.


3) On error in surveys and how to minimise it:

BIEMER, P P; LYBERG, L E (2003) Introduction to survey quality. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA. 

- This book details each of the different types of errors in surveys. The authors provide advice on how to design a survey to minimize the Total Survey Error (the accumulation of the various types of error).

GROVES, R M; DILLMAN, D A; ELTINGE, J L; LITTLE, R J A (Eds) (2002) Survey nonresponse. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; New York, USA. 

- This book details various aspects of nonresponse, an important source of error, and how to deal with it.

FOWLER, F F; MANGIONE, T W (1990) Standardized survey interviewing: minimizing interviewer-related error. SAGE Publications, Inc.; Newbury Park, CA, USA. 

- This is concerned with the prevailing interviewing technique. This book discusses why it is important and how to implement it.


4) On specific modes of surveys:

LEPKOWSKI, J M; TUCKER, C; BRICK, J M; DE LEEUW, E D; JAPEC, L; LAVRAKAS, P J; LINK, M W; SANGSTER, R L; (Eds) (2008) Advances in telephone survey methodology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA. 

- This book details some serious concerns about telephone surveys (such as declines in response rates and coverage) given changes in the use of phones in Western society. However phone surveys are still important in data collection efforts. The authors provide an overview of how to conduct a phone survey lab.

DILLMAN, D A;  SMYTHE,  J D; CHRISTIAN, L M (2009) Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: the tailored design method (3rd Ed.). John Wiley and Sons,Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA.

- This provides guidelines on how to plan and conduct internet, mail, and telephone surveys.

COUPER, M P (2008) Designing effective web surveys. Cambridge University Press; New York, USA.

- This book is a practical guide on design considerations for web surveys.


5) On the future of surveys:

CONRAD, F G;  SCHOBER, M F (Eds) (2008) Envisioning the survey interview of the future. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

- This book helps the reader to consider the future development of surveys. Some of the techniques discussed are already well on their way to common use.