Standard methods for tracheal mite research.

Authors: Diana Sammataro, Lilia de Guzman, Sherly George, Ron Ochoa, Gard Otis.

Table of contents

 

Authors
Summary
1. Introduction
2. Taxonomy and systematics
   2.1. Taxonomy
   2.2. Identifying tracheal mites

      2.2.1. Mite appearance
      2.2.2. New tarsonemid mite associations
      2.2.3. Where to find mites
      2.2.4. Life cycle
      2.2.5. Mite dispersal
3. Collecting mites
   3.1. Field methods
   3.2. Sampling colonies

      3.2.1. When to sample
      3.2.2. Collecting bee samples
      3.2.3. Shipping samples
      3.2.4. Number of bees to be examined to detect the presence of HBTM
   3.3. Detection methods
      3.3.1. Laboratory detection: microscopic detection of Acarapis woodi
      3.3.2. Screening individual bees
      3.3.3. Sample preparation: morphological analysis and slide preparation
      3.3.4. How to mount specimens
      3.3.5. Screening a large number of bees
      3.3.6. Thoracic disc method (TDM)
   3.4. Serological and molecular detection of Acarapis woodi
      3.4.1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).
      3.4.2. Guanine visualization
      3.4.3. Molecular detection of Acarapis woodi in Apis mellifera
      3.4.4. Real-time PCR
4. Experimentation with live mites
   4.1. Rearing HBTM in colonies

      4.1.1. Removing sealed brood
      4.1.2. Artificial rearing of HBTM
   4.2. Infesting bees with HBTM
   4.3. Collecting live mites
5. Controlling tracheal mites
   5.1. Effects on bees
   5.2. Resistant bees
   5.3. Chemical control
   5.4. Cultural control
6. Acknowledgements
7. References