4.2. Infesting bees with HBTM

Allow worker bees to emerge in incubators.

Mark bees with paint on their abdomens or numbered tags glued to their thoraces shortly after emergence. Paint applied to the bees’ thoraces may interfere with migration of mites into their tracheae.

Introduce them to infested colonies preferably at dusk. Otherwise, screen the hive entrances for 1-2 h to prevent their rejection. Giordani (1962) referred to this method as infestation expérimentale. It has served as the method of obtaining infested bees to study the life history of the mite (Pettis and Wilson, 1996), host age-preference (Morgenthaler, 1931; Lee, 1963; Gary et al., 1989), caste preference (Dawicke et al., 1992), relative resistance of bees from different genetic sources (Page and Gary, 1990; Danka and Villa, 1999; Nasr et al., 2001), and the effects of mites on adult bees (Bailey and Lee, 1959; Gary et al., 1989).