2.4.3. DNA sequencing

Amplified DNA can be then sent to a laboratory for sequencing and the sequence can then be compared with sequences in GenBank using BLAST (see the section ‘Obtaining and formatting sequences of interest for phylogenetics’ of the BEEBOOK paper on molecular methods (Evans et al., 2013)). The critical part of DNA sequencing is to decide which gene to sequence for a particular outcome, and only trial and error will determine this. Fortunately, studies have already shown that sequences obtained from specific regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of varroa are useful for examining inter and intra-species variation (Anderson and Fuchs, 1998; Anderson and Trueman, 2000; Navajas et al., 2009).