2.4.6. Kinship determination with microsatellites

Microsatellites are useful markers for measuring kinship or paternity relationships within varroa populations. These consist of repeating sequence of base-pairs DNA (such as CACACA) at a single locus (see the section ‘Microsatellites’ in the BEEBOOK paper on molecular methods (Evans et al., 2013)). Loci with long repeats have more alleles than loci with short repeats and therefore often allow for a progenitor of a particular allele to be identified. Microsatellite loci in varroa have been published by Evans (2000) and Solignac et al. (2005).