Cell invasion

In this case, the attention is on the cues influencing the entrance of the mite into the brood cell containing an L5 bee larvae (see the section ‘Obtaining brood and adults of known age’ in the BEEBOOK paper on miscellaneous methods (Human et al., 2013) for a description of larval stages), in the 20-60 hours preceding capping (Rosenkranz et al., 2010). After the first studies with the star olfactometer (see Le Conte et al., 1989), bioassays better adapted to the varroa mite were used; here a bioassay that appeared to be suitable to test both attractants linked to worker cell invasion (Rosenkranz, 1993; Nazzi et al., 2001; Nazzi et al., 2004; Aumeier et al., 2002) and repellents involved in the avoidance of queen cells (Nazzi et al., 2009) is presented.