Experimental setup

This bioassay was described by Nazzi et al. (2001) and represents a modification of the device used by Rosenkranz (1993).

1. Use an arena consisting of a glass plate with four wells (7 mm diameter; 8 mm deep) equidistant (1 cm) from the centre.

2. Mount a glass lid on a circular metal ring (5.6 cm diameter) to confine the mites in the arena.

3. Apply the treatment to two opposite wells while the other two wells are used as controls.

4. Place one bee larva or dummy into each well.

5. Place one adult female mite in the centre of the arena between the four wells with a fine paint brush (Fig. 8).

6. Keep the arenas in a chamber at 34.5 °C and 60-70 % RH for the duration of the bioassay.

7. Note the position of the mites every 5 min for 30 min.

In order to obtain sufficient sample size, twenty arenas are used at a time and tests are replicated on different days for several times (typically a minimum of three) using a total of at least 60 mites.

Fig. 8. Arena used for the bioassays on cell invasion behaviour.

Figure 8