Experimental setup to test oviposition

1. Treat the cell or the mite with the compound under testing (beware of solvent toxicity for bees and mites).

2. Transfer the mites into cells containing a host at an early enough developmental time which allows reproduction by the mite to proceed normally.

3. Monitor reproduction after a given interval of time.

When fecundity measurement is needed, the cell should be opened one day before emergence. This period can be shorter if only fertility (i.e. answering the reproduction yes or no) is of interest, but it must be passed 70 h after capping (Table 2).

Table 2. Minimal time after capping for which various mite reproduction parameters can be accurately measured. Adapted from Martin 1994 and 1995a. *see Fig. 16 for a physogastric mite. In comparison, the segments of a non-physogastric mite appear connected and not separated by white borders (intersegmental membrane).

Mite reproduction classification

 Time from

cell capping (hours)




> 60

after first egg should have been laid

abnormal with only single male

> 140

after second egg should have hatched




> 70

if mother mite non-physogastric* 

absence of eggs

mite dead trapped in cell wall

> 30

after cocoon spinning by larva is complete

mite dead in cell

> 0

at any time