1.1.10. Lake Sinai virus-1 /Lake Sinai virus-2

Lake Sinai virus-1 (LSV-1) and Lake Sinai virus-2 (LSV-2) are two closely related viruses that were identified in through a mass metagenomic sequencing survey of honey bee colonies in the USA (Runckel et al., 2011). Their genome organization and sequences place them together with CBPV, in a unique family somewhere between the Nodaviridae and Tombusviridae. Both viruses are common and very abundant at peak incidence. LSV-1 is more common than LSV-2, present throughout the year with a peak in early summer. LSV-2 has a very sharp incidence and abundance peak in late winter with low incidence and abundance the rest of the year. These viruses have also been detected, with similar incidences and titres, in historical European honey bee samples. LSV-1 and LSV-2 have strong similarities in capsid and genome size, seasonal incidence, predominantly adult-based infection and absence of overt symptoms with Bee virus Y and Bee virus X respectively (Table 1 and 2), and may therefore be related.