1.1.2. Black queen cell virus

The main symptoms for black queen cell virus (BQCV) consist of blackened cell walls of sealed queen cells, containing dead pro-pupae (Bailey and Ball, 1991; Leat et al., 2000). Diseased larvae have a pale yellow appearance and tough sac-like skin, much like sacbrood. The virus is present in adult bees but without obvious symptoms.

The BEEBOOK